English-Indonesian Subtitling Strategies of Lara Jean’s Utterances in “To All the Boys: Always and Forever” Movie on Netflix

Tiffani Rizki Putri Baihaqi, Agus Subiyanto


Abstract. Streaming platforms, such as Netflix, gained their popularity significantly during the pandemic prominently since people avoid watching films in theatres. Thus, the study of translation, specifically subtitling, is necessary since there will be more films with different languages to be produced and streamed by people from different countries. This research aims to study and interpret the subtitling strategies used on Netflix, specifically in “To All the Boys: Always and Forever” movie. Employing a qualitative library research method and document analysis for the data collecting technique, this research unveils the subtitling strategies as well as the subtitle quality of Lara Jean’s utterances in “To All the Boys: Always and Forever” film on Netflix. The data source is chosen since the film is considered popular as it is the adaptation of the best-selling novel “Always and Forever, Lara Jean.” From the 428 utterances, it is discovered that there are seven strategies applied; respectively paraphrase, transfer, condensation, deletion, expansion, imitation, and transcription. Meanwhile, three strategies that are not found are decimation, dislocation, and resignation. Paraphrase is the most frequently applied strategy since many utterances require localization and alteration to become clearer for the Indonesian audience. On the other hand, decimation, dislocation, and resignation are not used respectively due to the rate of the film, translatable utterances, and soundtracks that are not translated.

Keywords: film; netflix; subtitling strategies; subtitling quality; translation

Abstrak. Layanan streaming, seperti Netflix, meraih popularitas secara signifikan selama pandemi karena masyarakat menghindari menonton film langsung di bioskop. Oleh karena itu, penelitian mengenai terjemahan, khususnya subtitling, diperlukan karena film dalam bahasa asing akan semakin banyak diproduksi dan ditonton oleh orang-orang dari berbagai negara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan memaknai strategi subtitling yang digunakan oleh Netflix, khususnya pada film “To All the Boys: Always and Forever.” Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dan mengungkap strategi serta kualitas subtitling dari ucapan Lara Jean dalam trilogi “To All the Boys: Always and Forever” di Netflix. Sumber data tersebut dipilih karena film yang dianggap populer ini merupakan adaptasi dari novel “Always and Forever, Lara Jean.” Dari 428 ujaran, terdapat tujuh strategi yang diterapkan, yaitu parafrase, transfer, pemampatan, penghapusan, penambahan, imitasi, dan transkripsi. Sedangkan tiga strategi yang tidak diterapkan yaitu desimasi, dislokasi, dan angkat tangan. Parafrase merupakan strategi yang paling banyak ditemukan karena terdapat banyak ujaran yang disesuaikan dengan konteks lokal dan diubah agar menjadi lebih jelas bagi penonton Indonesia. Sementara itu, desimasi, dislokasi, dan angkat tangan tidak digunakan karena kategori film, ujaran yang dapat diterjemahkan, dan lagu yang tidak diterjemahkan.

Kata kunci: film; kualitas subtitling; netflix; strategi subtitling; terjemahan

Full Text:



Abdelaal, N. (2019). Subtitling of Culture-bound Terms: Strategies and Quality Assessment. Heliyon, 5(4), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01411

Adinusa, H., & Asmarani, R. (2018). Subtitling Strategies of Po’s Utterances in Kung Fu Panda Movie. E-Structural (English Studies on Translation, Culture, Literature, and Linguistics), 1(1), 70–87. http://publikasi.dinus.ac.id/index.php/estructural/article/view/1825/0

Almeida, P., & Costa, P. (2014). Foreign Language Acquisition: The Role of Subtitling. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1234–1238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.212

Altahri, A. (2013). Issues and strategies of subtitling cultural references Harry Potter movies in Arabic. University of Salford.

As you were. (n.d.). In Collins English Dictionary.

Atmowardoyo, H. (2018). Research Methods in TEFL Studies: Descriptive Research, Case Study, Error Analysis, and R & D. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(1), 197–204. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0901.25

Boudoir. (n.d.). In Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries.

Bowen, G. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27–40. https://doi.org/10.3316/QRJ0902027

Cintas, J. (2012). Subtitling: Theory, Practice and Research. In C. Millán & F. Bartrina (The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies. Routledge.

Cintas, J., & Ramael, A. (2021). Subtitling: Concepts and practices. Routledge. www.routledge.com/Translation-Practices-Explained/book-series/TPE

Dhari, P., Suarnajaya, W., & Suwastini, N. (2016). An Analysis of Subtitling Strategy in the La La Land Movie. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.23887/jpbi.v5i2.15053

Fareh, S., & Moussa, M. (2008). Pragmatic Functions of Interrogative Sentences in English: A Corpus-based Study. International Journal of Arabic-English Studies (IJAES), 9(1), 145–164. http://www.ijaes.net/article/viewarticle?volume=9&issue=1&articleId=8

George, M. (2008). The Elements of Library Research: What Every Students Needs to Know. Princeton University Press.

Gottlieb, H. (1992). Subtitling - A New University Discipline. In C.

Dollerup & A. Loddegaard (Eds.), Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Training, Talent and Experience. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Gottlieb, H. (2001). Texts, Translation and Subtitling-in Theory, and in Denmark. In Translators and Translations. Aarhus Universitetsforlag.

Halim, H., & Asmarani, R. (2019). Procedures Used in Translating Cultural Words of the Movie Eat Pray Love. Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Dan Budaya, 15(2), 217–248. http://publikasi.dinus.ac.id/index.php/lite/article/view/2975/1706

Hariyanto, S. (2005). Subtitling: Di Antara Keterbatasan Bahasa-Budaya dan Media (Seklias Tinjauan). International Conference on Translation: Translation, Discourse, and Culture.

Hastuti, E. (2015). An Analysis On Subtitling Strategies Of Romeo And Juliet Movie. REGISTER JOURNAL, 8(1), 57–80. https://journalregister.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/register/article/view/324/257

Hosseinnia, M. (2014). Strategies in Subtitling English Cartoons or Animations. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 5(3), 128–135. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

Hudi, A., Hartono, R., & Yuliasri, I. (2020). Subtitling Techniques and the Quality of Indonesian Subtitles of The English Teacher. English Education Journal, 10(456–465). https://doi.org/10.15294/eej.v10i4.39284

Khalaf, B. (2016). An Introduction to Subtitling: Challenges and Strategies. Journal of English Language, Literature, and Translation Studies, 3(1), 122–129. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324921121

Kholiq, M., & Agustine, E. (2020). Subtitling Strategies in “The Boss Baby: Back in Business” Series. Ethical Lingua, 7(1), 22–27. https://doi.org/10.30605/25409190.156

Laserna, C., Seih, Y., & Pennebaker, J. (2014). Um… Who Like Says You Know: Filler Word Use as a Function of Age, Gender, and Personality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 33(3), 328–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X14526993

Matkivska, N. (2014). Audiovisual Translation: Conception, Types, Characters’ Speech and Translation Strategies Applied. Studies about Languages, 25, 38–44. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sal.0.25.8516

Nababan, M. (2012). Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. Pustaka Pelajar.

Paraphrase. (n.d.). In Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries.

Pérez-González, L. (2014). Audiovisual Translation Theories, Methods and Issues. Routledge E-books.

Puri, D., & Pasaribu, T. (2019). Pubg Fansubtitle: Strategies and Translation Acceptability. Journal of Language and Literature, 19(2), 126–139. https://doi.org/10.24071/joll.v19i2.2142

Rating Guide. (2020).

Richards, T. (2021). Predicting the future of the entertainment industry post-covid. USC News. https://news.usc.edu/183870/future-of-entertainment-after-covid-movies-tv-streaming-usc-experts/

Rohmawati. (2021). Subtitling Strategies of Swear Words in Deadpool One & Deadpool Two Film. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 6(1), 17–36. http://publikasi.dinus.ac.id/index.php/lite/article/view/1093

Shirinzadeh, S., & Mahadi, T. (2014). Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez’s Lyrics. English Language Teaching, 7(7), 8–16. https://doi.org//10.5539/elt.v7n7p8

Simanjuntak, N., & Basari, A. (2016). Subtitling Strategies in Real Steel Movie. LITE: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Dan Budaya, 12(1), 17–36.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33633/es.v4i02.5112

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 832 times
PDF - 422 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

indexed by:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.