Strategies in Teaching Speaking used by Teachers of Young, Junior High School, Senior High School, and University Students

Heidy Wulandari

Abstract


Abstract. This study aims at describing strategies in teaching speaking adopted by teachers of different student levels. The method used was descriptive qualitative method with 32 participants. The instrument was interview in the form of focused group discussion. The data were analyzed using open coding and categorization. The result shows that teachers of all levels tend to consider students’ needs, the components of teaching speaking, and the media. For young learners, the teachers use discussion, story-telling, speech, guessing game, problem solving, and simulation. Games, modeling, electronic media, and instruction are suggested by the teachers as additional strategies. Meanwhile the strategies used for teaching speaking to junior high school students are discussion, story-telling, guessing game, and role play. Direct speaking is suggested as additional strategy. Moreover for teaching speaking to senior high school students, the teachers choose strategies such as discussion, story-telling, speech, guessing game, role play, problem solving, simulation, information gap, and jigsaw. Additional strategies suggested by the teachers are building sentences from root, talking stick, team game tournament, think pair and share, snowball throwing game, think, discuss and share, talking English directly, give and take model, time token model, repeat pronouncing words, and media and teacher as model. Then for teaching speaking to university students, the strategies chosen are role play, discussion, story-telling, problem solving, speech and simulation, guessing game, and information gaps. The additional strategies suggested by the teachers are hot seat and presentation. Finally, it is recommended that the further research will take time limitation, and the strategies strengths and weaknesses into account.

Keywords: speaking, strategies, teaching

Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tentang strategi mengajar berbicara bahasa Inggris yang dipakai guru dalam mengajar siswa dengan level berbeda. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kualitatif deskriptif dengan 32 partisipan. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah wawancara dalam bentuk fokus grup diskusi. Analisis data dilakukan dengan koding dan kategorisasi. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa guru cenderung mempertimbangkan kebutuhan siswa, komponen dalam mengajar speaking, dan media. Untuk mengajar anak-anak guru menggunakan strategi diskusi, bercerita, berpidato, tebak-tebakan, penyelesaian masalah, dan simulasi. Permainan, model, media elektronik dan instruksi disarankan oleh para guru sebagai strategi tambahan. Sementara itu untuk mengajar berbicara bahasa Inggris pada siswa SMP, strategi yang digunakan adalah diskusi, bercerita, tebak-tebakan, dan bermain peran. Berbicara langsung disarankan sebagai strategi tambahan. Selain itu, untuk mengajar berbicara bahasa Inggris pada siswa SMA, guru memilih strategi seperti diskusi, bercerita, pidato, tebak-tebakan, bermain peran, penyelesaian masalah, simulasi, gap informasi ,dan jigsaw. Strategi tambahan yang disarankan oleh para guru adalah membuat kalimat dari akar kata, tongkat berbicara, turnamen tim, berpikir, berpasangan, dan berbagi, lempar bola salju, berpikir, berdiskusi, dan berbagi, berbicara langsung bahasa Inggris, memberi dan menerima, model token waktu, dan mengucapkan kata berulang. Kemudian untuk mengajar mahasiswa, strategi yang dipilih adalah bermain peran, diskusi, bercerita, penyelesaian masalah, berpidato dan simulasi, tebak-tebakan, dan gap informasi. Strategi tambahan yang disarankan oleh para guru adalah kursi panas dan presentasi. Penelitian ini tidak mempertimbangkan kekurangan dan kelebihan dari setiap strategi. Oleh karena itu aspek kekurangan dan kelebihan dari strategi mengajar speaking di level berbeda sangat direkomendasikan bagi penelitian selanjutnya.

Kata kunci: berbicara bahasa Inggris, mengajar, strategi


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alqahtani, M. (2015). The importance of vocabulary in language learning and how to be taught. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 3 (3), 21-34 DOI: 10.20472/TE.2015.3.3.002.

Anjaniputra, A.G. (2013). Teacher's strategies in teaching speaking to students at secondary level. E-Journal on English Education, 1 (2), 1-8. Retrieved from http://ejournal.upi.edu /index.php/L-E/article/view/577/434.

Bohari, L. (2019). Improving speaking skills through small group discussion at eleventh grade students of SMA Plus Munirul Arifin NW Praya. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 7(1), 68-81. DOI: 10.33394/jolt.v7i1.1441

Cañado, M. L. P. (2010). The transformation of teacher and student roles in the European higher education area. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1 (2), 103-110. doi: 10.4304/jltr.1.2.103-110.

Debata, P. K. (2013). The importance of grammar in English language teaching: a reassessment. Language in India, 13 (5), 482-486. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Importance-ofGrammar-in-English-Language-A-Debata/77f7b353709157dd061c6b2b67a4db284af53ff8.

Dewi, R.S., Kultsum, U., and Armadi, A. (2017). Using communicative gaes in improving students’ speaking skills. English Language Teaching, 10(1), 63-71. DOI: 10.5539/elt.10n1p63.

Karsono, P. (2014). Using pictures in improving the speaking ability of the grade eight-A students of SMP Negeri 1 Anggana. Dinamika Ilmu, 14(2), 190-213. DOI: 10.21093/di.v14i2.3.

Khan, R.M.I., Radzuan, N.R.M., Shahbaz, M., Ibrahim, A.H., and Mustafa, G. (2018). The role of vocabulary knowledge in speaking development of Saudi EFL learners. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 9 (1), 406-418 https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol9no1.28.

Lin, M. and Bates, A. (2014). Who is in my classroom? teachers preparing to work with culturally diverse students. International Research in Early Childhood Education, 5(1), 27-42. Retrieved from https://bridges.monash.edu/articles/journal_ contribution/Who_is_in_my_classroom_teachers-preparing_to_work_with_ culturally_diverse_students/4141869.

Marza, N. E. (2014). Pronunciation and comprehension of oral English as a foreign language class: key aspects, students' perceptions and proposals. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 5, 2, 262-273 doi: 10.4304/jltr.5.2.262-273.

Maulidar, K., Gani, S. A., Samad, I. A. (2019). Teacher's strategies in teaching speaking for cadets. English Education Journal, 10 (1), 80-94. Retrieved from https://jurnal.unsyiah.ac.id/EEJ/article/view/13258.

Meilyaningsih, A. I. (2015). Improving the students' speaking ability through the use of role playing technique for grade viii students of SMPN1 Banguntapan in the academic year of 2013/2014 (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). State University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta.

Motteram, G. (Ed). (2013). Innovations in Learning Technologies for English Language Teaching. United Kingdom: British Council.

Nation, P. (2007). The four strands. Innovation in language learning and teaching, 1 (1), 1-11 DOI: 10.2167/illt039.0.

Nickols, F. (2016). Strategy: definition & meanings. Retrieved from https://www. nickols.us/strategy_definitions.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiB2o3vxuztAhXTdCsKHZ3jDgAQFjACegQIBRAC&usg=AOvVaw20FkrVHNkncqiAaBSlyUNO.

Permana D, Hidayatullah H, and Hafizah N. (2018). The effectiveness of chain drill technique in teaching speaking. Jurnal Kependidikan 17(2), 133-140. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336527079_The_Effectiveness_of_Chain_Drill_Technique_in_Teaching_Speaking.

Porter, M. E. (2012). What is strategy: issues for the World Bank. Washington: world bank strategy discussion. Retrieved from https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx? num=46827.

Rahayu, P. (2015). Role play strategy in teaching speaking. Jurnal Ilmiah Edu Research, 4 (1), 61-70. Retrieved from https://www.e-journal.upp.ac.id

Rianingsih R. (2015). The teacher strategies in overcoming students' difficulties in speaking at english intensive program of MA An-nur Cirebon. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). IAIN Syekh Nurjati, Cirebon.

Shahini, G. and Shahamirian, F. (2017). Improving English speaking fluency: The role of six factors. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(6), 100-104 DOI:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.6p.100.

Widyaningsih, T.L. (2016). Enhancing students' speaking skill through debate technique. INSPIRASI (Jurnal Ilmu Sosial), 13 (2), 1-12. Retrieved from https://jurnal.stkippgritulungagung.ac.id/index.php/inspirasi/article/view/398/214.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33633/es.v3i02.4225

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 130 times
PDF - 52 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


indexed by:

    

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.